Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2021
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant accounting policies||
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and are presented in United States dollars. The functional currency of the Company and each of its subsidiaries is the United States dollar.
The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are set out below and have been consistently applied to all years presented.
Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform with the current year’s presentation.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Adgero, Adgero Inc., Del Mar BC, Callco, and Exchangeco as of, and for the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses, contingent assets, and contingent liabilities as at the end of, or during, the reporting period. Actual results could significantly differ from those estimates. Significant areas requiring management to make estimates include the fair value of the milestone payment liability, the valuation of equity instruments issued for services, clinical trial accruals, deferred tax valuation allowance and assessment of going concern. Further details of the nature of these assumptions and conditions may be found in the relevant notes to these consolidated financial statements.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and highly liquid investments with original maturities from the purchase date of three months or less that can be readily convertible into known amounts of cash. Cash and cash equivalents are held at recognized Canadian and United States financial institutions. Interest earned is recognized in the consolidated statement of operations.
Foreign currency translation
The functional currency of the Company at June 30, 2021 is the United States dollar. Transactions that are denominated in a foreign currency are remeasured into the functional currency at the current exchange rate on the date of the transaction. Any foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are subsequently remeasured at current exchange rates, with gains or losses recognized as foreign exchange losses or gains in the consolidated statement of operations. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are translated at historical exchange rates. Expenses are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Exchange gains and losses are included in consolidated statement of operations for the period.
Acquired in-process research and development expense
The Company acquired in-process research and development assets in connection with its Merger with Adgero. As the acquired in-process research and development assets were deemed to have no current or alternative future use, an expense of $16,094 was recognized in the consolidated statements of operations for the year ended June 30, 2021.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life of three years. Depreciation expense is recognized from the date the equipment is put into use.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. To the extent that deferred tax assets cannot be recognized under the preceding criteria, the Company establishes valuation allowances, as necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
As of June 30, 2021, and 2020, all deferred tax assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance. The realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future federal, state and foreign taxable income. The Company’s judgments regarding deferred tax assets may change due to future market conditions, as the Company expands into international jurisdictions, due to changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors.
These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the Company’s deferred tax assets, resulting in a reduction in net income or an increase in net loss in the period in which such determinations are made. The Company recognizes the impact of uncertain tax positions based upon a two-step process. To the extent that a tax position does not meet a more-likely-than-not level of certainty, no impact is recognized in the consolidated financial statements. If a tax position meets the more-likely-than-not level of certainty, it is recognized in the consolidated financial statements at the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company’s policy is to analyze the Company’s tax positions taken with respect to all applicable income tax issues for all open tax years in each respective jurisdiction. Interest and penalties with respect to uncertain tax positions would be included in income tax expense. As of June 30, 2021, the Company concluded that there were no uncertain tax provisions required to be recognized in its consolidated financial statements.
The Company does not record U.S. income taxes on the undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries based upon the Company’s intention to permanently reinvest undistributed earnings to ensure sufficient working capital and further expansion of existing operations outside the United States. As June 30, 2021, the Company’s foreign subsidiaries operated at a cumulative deficit for U.S. earnings and profit purposes. In the event the Company is required to repatriate funds from outside of the United States, such repatriation would be subject to local laws, customs, and tax consequences. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings is not practicable.
The Company has financial instruments that are measured at fair value. To determine the fair value, the Company uses the fair value hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs market participants would use to value an asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs are inputs based on assumptions about the factors market participants would use to value an asset or liability. The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:
Assets and liabilities are classified based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurements. Changes in the observability of valuation inputs may result in a reclassification of levels for certain securities within the fair value hierarchy. As of June 30, 2021, the Company’s milestone payment liability was measured using level 3 inputs (note 3).
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, other receivables, accounts payable, and related party payables. The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, other receivables, accounts payable and related party payables approximate their fair values due to the immediate or short-term maturity of these financial instruments.
Website development costs
Website development costs are stated at cost less accumulated amortization. The Company capitalizes website development costs associated with graphics design and development of the website application and infrastructure. Costs related to planning, content input, and website operations are expensed as incurred. The Company amortizes website development costs on a straight-line basis over three years.
Expenditures associated with the filing, or maintenance of patents, licensing or technology agreements are expensed as incurred. Costs previously recognized as an expense are not recognized as an asset in subsequent periods. Once the Company has achieved regulatory approval patent costs will be deferred and amortized over the remaining life of the related patent.
Accruals for research and development expenses and clinical trials
As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants, and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment terms that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are performed and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the expenses. The Company determines accrual estimates by taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress of clinical trials, or the services completed. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors. Although the Company does not expect its estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, its understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in it reporting amounts that are too high or too low for any particular period. For the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, there were no material adjustments to the Company’s prior period estimates of accrued expenses for clinical trials.
Warrants and shares issued for services
The Company has issued equity instruments for services provided by employees and non-employees. The equity instruments are valued at the fair value of the instrument issued.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to employees, non-employees and directors as an expense in the statement of operations over the service period based on a measurement of fair value for each stock-based award. Prior to our adoption of ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”), stock options granted to non-employee consultants were revalued at the end of each reporting period until vested using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and the changes in their fair value were recorded as adjustments to expense over the related vesting period. For the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the determination of grant-date fair value for stock option awards was estimated using the Black-Scholes model, which includes variables such as the expected volatility of our share price, the anticipated exercise behavior of its grantee, interest rates, and dividend yields. For years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company utilized the plain vanilla method to determine the expected life of stock options. These variables are projected based on our historical data, experience, and other factors. Changes in any of these variables could result in material adjustments to the expense recognized for share-based payments. Such value is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, net of actual forfeitures, using the accelerated attribution method. The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur. The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results, or updated estimates, differ from current estimates, such amounts are recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised.
Loss per share
Income or loss per share is calculated based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. For the years ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 diluted loss per share does not differ from basic loss per share since the effect of the Company’s warrants, stock options, performance stock units, and convertible preferred shares is anti-dilutive. As of June 30, 2021, potential common shares of 6,974 (2020 – 10,309) related to outstanding common stock warrants, 2,100 (2020 – nil) related to outstanding Series C preferred stock warrants, 6,392 (2020 – 1,559) related to stock options, nil (2020 – 162) relating to outstanding Series B convertible preferred shares, and 17,295 (2020 – nil) relating to outstanding Series C convertible preferred shares were excluded from the calculation of net loss per common share.
The Company identifies its operating segments based on business activities, management responsibility and geographical location. The Company operates within aoperating segment being the research and development of cancer indications, and operates primarily in one geographic area, being North America. The Company previously conducted one clinical trial in China but the expenses incurred over the course of the study were not significant. All of the Company’s assets are located in either Canada or the United States.
Recent accounting pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date.
Not yet adopted
Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2020-06 — Debt - Debt with conversion and other options (subtopic 470-20) and derivatives and hedging – contracts in entity’s own equity (subtopic 815-40): accounting for convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity
The amendments in this update are intended to simplify the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts on an entity’s own equity. The ASU is part of the FASB’s simplification initiative, which aims to reduce unnecessary complexity in U.S. GAAP. For public business entities that are not smaller reporting companies, the ASU’s amendments are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other entities, the effective date is for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The guidance may be early adopted for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
ASU 2020-10 — Codification Improvements
The amendments in this update remove references to various FASB Concepts Statements, situates all disclosure guidance in the appropriate disclosure section of the Codification, and makes other improvements and technical corrections to the Codification. The amendments in Sections B and C of this amendment are effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2020, for public business entities. For all other entities, the amendments are effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2022. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
ASU 2021-04 — Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Debt— Modifications and Extinguishments (Subtopic 470-50), Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718), and Derivatives and Hedging— Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Issuer’s Accounting for Certain Modifications or Exchanges of Freestanding Equity-Classified Written Call Options.
The amendments in this update are intended to clarify and reduce diversity in an issuer’s accounting for modifications or exchanges of freestanding equity-classified written call options (for example, warrants) that remain equity classified after modification or exchange and that are not within the scope of another FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The amendments in ASU 2021-04 are effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, including interim periods within those fiscal years. An entity should apply the amendments prospectively to modifications or exchanges occurring on or after the effective date of the
amendments. Early adoption is permitted for all entities, including adoption in an interim period. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
During the year ended June 30, 2021, other than ASUs 2020-06, 2020-10, and 2021-04, there have been no new, or existing recently issued, accounting pronouncements that are of significance, or potential significance, that impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef