Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jun. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant accounting policies||
Reverse stock split
On May 7, 2019, the Company filed a Certificate of Change with the Secretary of State of Nevada that effected a 1-for-10 (1:10) reverse stock split of its common stock, par value $0.001 per share, which became effective on May 8, 2019. Pursuant to the Certificate of Change, the Company’s authorized common stock was decreased in the same proportion as the split resulting in a decrease from 70,000,000 authorized shares of common stock to 7,000,000 shares authorized. The par value of its common stock was unchanged at $0.001 per share, post-split. All common shares, warrants, stock options, conversion ratios, and per share information in these consolidated financial statements give retroactive effect to the 1-for-10 reverse stock split. The Company’s authorized and issued preferred stock was not affected by the split.
Amended articles of incorporation
On June 26, 2019, the Company amended its articles of incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of common stock from 7,000,000 to 95,000,000 shares.
Basis of presentation
The consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in accordance with United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“U.S. GAAP”) and are presented in United States dollars. The functional currency of the Company and each of its subsidiaries is the United States dollar.
The principal accounting policies applied in the preparation of these consolidated financial statements are set out below and have been consistently applied to all years presented.
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, Del Mar BC, Callco, and Exchangeco as of and for the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019. Intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated on consolidation.
Use of estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future events that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, expenses, contingent assets, and contingent liabilities as at the end of, or during, the reporting period. Actual results could significantly differ from those estimates. Significant areas requiring management to make estimates include the fair value of the derivative liabilities, the valuation of equity instruments issued for services, and clinical trial accruals. Further details of the nature of these assumptions and conditions may be found in the relevant notes to these consolidated financial statements.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of cash and highly liquid investments with original maturities from the purchase date of three months or less that can be readily convertible into known amounts of cash. Cash and cash equivalents are held at recognized Canadian and United States financial institutions. Interest earned is recognized in the consolidated statement of operations.
Foreign currency translation
The functional currency of the Company at June 30, 2020 is the United States dollar. Transactions that are denominated in a foreign currency are remeasured into the functional currency at the current exchange rate on the date of the transaction. Any foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are subsequently remeasured at current exchange rates, with gains or losses recognized as foreign exchange losses or gains in the consolidated statement of operations. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are translated at historical exchange rates. Expenses are translated at average exchange rates during the period. Exchange gains and losses are included in consolidated statement of operations for the period.
The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to the differences between the consolidated financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. To the extent that deferred tax assets cannot be recognized under the preceding criteria, the Company establishes valuation allowances, as necessary, to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
As of June 30, 2020, and 2019, all deferred tax assets were fully offset by a valuation allowance. The realization of deferred tax assets is dependent upon future federal, state and foreign taxable income. The Company’s judgments regarding deferred tax assets may change due to future market conditions, as the Company expands into international jurisdictions, due to changes in U.S. or international tax laws and other factors.
These changes, if any, may require material adjustments to the Company’s deferred tax assets, resulting in a reduction in net income or an increase in net loss in the period in which such determinations are made. The Company recognizes the impact of uncertain tax positions based upon a two-step process. To the extent that a tax position does not meet a more-likely-than-not level of certainty, no impact is recognized in the consolidated financial statements. If a tax position meets the more-likely-than-not level of certainty, it is recognized in the consolidated financial statements at the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. The Company’s policy is to analyze the Company’s tax positions taken with respect to all applicable income tax issues for all open tax years in each respective jurisdiction. Interest and penalties with respect to uncertain tax positions would be included in income tax expense. As of June 30, 2020, the Company concluded that there were no uncertain tax provisions required to be recognized in its consolidated financial statements.
The Company does not record U.S. income taxes on the undistributed earnings of its foreign subsidiaries based upon the Company’s intention to permanently reinvest undistributed earnings to ensure sufficient working capital and further expansion of existing operations outside the United States. As June 30, 2020, the Company’s foreign subsidiaries operated at a cumulative deficit for U.S. earnings and profit purposes. In the event the Company is required to repatriate funds from outside of the United States, such repatriation would be subject to local laws, customs, and tax consequences. Determination of the amount of unrecognized deferred tax liability related to these earnings is not practicable.
The Company has financial instruments that are measured at fair value. To determine the fair value, the Company uses the fair value hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs market participants would use to value an asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs are inputs based on assumptions about the factors market participants would use to value an asset or liability. The three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value are as follows:
Assets and liabilities are classified based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurements. Changes in the observability of valuation inputs may result in a reclassification of levels for certain securities within the fair value hierarchy. As of June 30, 2020, and 2019, the Company had certain derivative liabilities under the fair value hierarchy but their fair value was zero.
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, taxes and other receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, related party payables and derivative liabilities. The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents, taxes and other receivables, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, and related party payables approximate their fair values due to the immediate, or short-term, maturity of these financial instruments.
The Company accounts for certain warrants under the authoritative guidance on accounting for derivative financial instruments indexed to, and potentially settled in, a company’s own stock, on the understanding that in compliance with applicable securities laws, the warrants require the issuance of securities upon exercise and do not sufficiently preclude an implied right to net cash settlement, or contain a repricing feature under certain conditions. The Company classifies these warrants on its balance sheet as a derivative liability which is fair valued at each reporting period subsequent to the initial issuance. The Company has used a Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model (based on a closed-form model that uses a fixed equation) to estimate the fair value of the share warrants. Determining the appropriate fair-value model and calculating the fair value of warrants requires considerable judgment. Any change in the estimates (specifically probabilities and volatility) used may cause the value to be higher or lower than that reported. The estimated volatility of the Company’s common stock at the date of issuance, and at each subsequent reporting period, is based on the historical volatility of the Company. The risk-free interest rate is based on rates published by the government for bonds with a maturity similar to the expected remaining life of the warrants at the valuation date. The expected life of the warrants is assumed to be equivalent to their remaining contractual term.
The derivative is not traded in an active market and the fair value is determined using valuation techniques. The Company uses judgment to select a variety of methods to make assumptions that are based on specific management plans and market conditions at the end of each reporting period. The Company uses a fair value estimate to determine the fair value of the derivative liabilities. The carrying value of the derivative liabilities would be higher, or lower, as management estimates around specific probabilities change. The estimates may be significantly different from those amounts ultimately recorded in the consolidated financial statements because of the use of judgment and the inherent uncertainty in estimating the fair value of these instruments that are not quoted in an active market. All changes in the fair value are recorded in the consolidated statement of operations each reporting period. This is considered to be a Level 3 financial instrument as volatility is considered a Level 3 input.
Website development costs
Website development costs are stated at cost less accumulated amortization. The Company capitalizes website development costs associated with graphics design and development of the website application and infrastructure. Costs related to planning, content input, and website operations are expensed as incurred. The Company amortizes website development costs on a straight-line basis over three years. At June 30, 2020, the total capitalized cost was $79,910 (2019 - $79,910) and the Company has recognized $9,953 and $16,349, respectively, in amortization expense during the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019.
Expenditures associated with the filing, or maintenance of patents, licensing or technology agreements are expensed as incurred. Costs previously recognized as an expense are not recognized as an asset in subsequent periods. Once the Company has achieved regulatory approval patent costs will be deferred and amortized over the remaining life of the related patent.
Accruals for research and development expenses and clinical trials
As part of the process of preparing its financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its expenses resulting from its obligations under contracts with vendors, clinical research organizations and consultants, and under clinical site agreements in connection with conducting clinical trials. The financial terms of these contracts are subject to negotiations, which vary from contract to contract and may result in payment terms that do not match the periods over which materials or services are provided under such contracts. The Company’s objective is to reflect the appropriate expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which services are performed and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the timing of various aspects of the expenses. The Company determines accrual estimates by taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and outside service providers as to the progress of clinical trials, or the services completed. During the course of a clinical trial, the Company adjusts its clinical expense recognition if actual results differ from its estimates. The Company makes estimates of its accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date based on the facts and circumstances known to it at that time. The Company’s clinical trial accruals are dependent upon the timely and accurate reporting of contract research organizations and other third-party vendors. Although the Company does not expect its estimates to be materially different from amounts actually incurred, its understanding of the status and timing of services performed relative to the actual status and timing of services performed may vary and may result in it reporting amounts that are too high or too low for any particular period. For the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, there were no material adjustments to the Company’s prior period estimates of accrued expenses for clinical trials.
Warrants and shares issued for services
The Company has issued equity instruments for services provided by employees and non-employees. The equity instruments are valued at the fair value of the instrument issued.
The Company recognizes compensation costs resulting from the issuance of stock-based awards to employees, non-employees and directors as an expense in the statement of operations over the service period based on a measurement of fair value for each stock-based award. Prior to the Company’s adoption of ASU 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718), Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”), stock options granted to non-employee consultants were revalued at the end of each reporting period until vested using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model and the changes in their fair value were recorded as adjustments to expense over the related vesting period. For the year ended June 30, 2019, the determination of grant-date fair value for stock option awards was estimated using the Black-Scholes model, which includes variables such as the expected volatility of the Company’s share price, the anticipated exercise behavior of its grantee, interest rates, and dividend yields. For the year ended June 30, 2020, the Company utilized the plain vanilla method to determine the expected life of stock options. These variables are projected based on the Company’s historical data, experience, and other factors. Changes in any of these variables could result in material adjustments to the expense recognized for share-based payments. Such value is recognized as expense over the requisite service period, net of actual forfeitures, using the accelerated attribution method. The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur. The estimation of stock awards that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results, or updated estimates, differ from current estimates, such amounts are recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised.
Performance stock units
The Company also accounts for performance stock units (PSUs) under ASC 718. ASC 718 requires measurement of compensation cost for all stock-based awards at fair value on the date of grant and recognition of compensation expense over the requisite service period for awards expected to vest. As vesting of the PSUs is based on a number of factors, the determination of the grant-date fair value for PSUs has been estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation approach which includes variables such as the expected volatility of the Company’s share price and interest rates to generate potential future outcomes. These variables are projected based on the Company’s historical data, experience, and other factors. Changes in any of these variables could result in material adjustments to the expense recognized for the PSUs. Such value is recognized as expense over the derived service period using the accelerated attribution method. The estimation of PSUs that will ultimately vest requires judgment, and to the extent actual results, or updated estimates, differ from current estimates, such amounts are recorded as a cumulative adjustment in the period estimates are revised.
Loss per share
Income or loss per share is calculated based on the weighted average number of common shares outstanding. For the years ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 diluted loss per share does not differ from basic loss per share since the effect of the Company’s warrants, stock options, performance stock units, and convertible preferred shares is anti-dilutive. As of June 30, 2020, potential common shares of 10,309,456 (2019 – 1,543,596) related to outstanding warrants, 1,559,199 (2019 – 288,183) related to stock options, and 162,177 (2019 – 168,427) relating to outstanding Series B convertible preferred shares were excluded from the calculation of net loss per common share.
The Company identifies its operating segments based on business activities, management responsibility and geographical location. The Company operates within a single operating segment being the research and development of cancer indications, and operates primarily in one geographic area, being North America. The Company is conducting one clinical trial in China but the planned expenses to be incurred over the course of the study are not expected to be significant. All of the Company’s assets are located in either Canada or the United States.
Recent accounting pronouncements
From time to time, new accounting pronouncements are issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) or other standard setting bodies that are adopted by the Company as of the specified effective date.
Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-02 — Leases (Topic 842)
The new standard establishes a right-of-use (“ROU”) model that requires a lessee to record a ROU asset and a lease liability on the consolidated balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. Leases will be classified as either finance or operating, with classification affecting the pattern of expense recognition in the consolidated income statement. ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those annual periods, with early adoption permitted. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements, with certain practical expedients available. The early adoption of ASU 2016-02 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2018-07 — Stock Compensation (Topic 718) Improvements to Nonemployee Shares-based Payment Accounting
The amendments in this update are intended to the reduce cost and complexity and to improve financial reporting for share-based payments issued to nonemployees. The ASU expands the scope of Topic 718, Compensation —Stock Compensation, which currently only includes share-based payments issued to employees, to also include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods and services. The existing guidance on nonemployee share-based payments is significantly different from current guidance for employee share-based payments. This ASU expands the scope of the employee share-based payments guidance to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees. By doing so, the FASB improves the accounting of nonemployee share-based payments issued to acquire goods and services used in its own operations. The amendments in this ASU are effective for public companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The early adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
ASU 2017-11 — I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Non-public Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception
The amendments in this update are intended to reduce the complexity associated with the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Specifically, a down round feature would no longer cause a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or an embedded conversion option) to be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in current earnings. In addition, the indefinite deferral of certain provisions of Topic 480 have been re-characterized to a scope exception. The re-characterization has no accounting effect. ASU 2017-11 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The adoption of ASU 2018-07 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Not yet adopted
ASU 2018-13 — Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement
The amendments in this update are designed to improve the effectiveness of disclosures by removing, modifying and adding disclosures related to fair value measurements and is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
ASU 2018-18 — Collaborative Arrangements (Topic 808): Clarifying the Interaction between Topic 808 and Topic 606
The amendments in this update are intended to clarify the interaction between the accounting guidance for collaborative arrangements and revenue from contracts with customers. ASU 2018-18 is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within that fiscal year. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
ASU 2019-12 — Income Taxes (Topic 740)
The amendments in this update are intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period, and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. ASU 2019-12 also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted. Adoption of ASU 2019-12 requires certain changes to be made prospectively and other changes to be made retrospectively. The Company has not yet evaluated the impact of adoption of this ASU on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
During the year ended June 30, 2020, other than ASU’s 2018-13, 2018-18 and 2019-12 there have been no new, or existing recently issued, accounting pronouncements that are of significance, or potential significance, that impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef